Image:Ming foreign relations 1580.jpg

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This map shows Ming Dynasty China in 1580. The distribution of guard commanders reflects the dynasty's concern with the north border, the Wokou threat on the eastern seaboard, and also the continuing instability in the southwest.

The imperial courier routes shown are based on Map 2 in Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. (Berkeley: University of California, 1998), p. 36. Compare with the communication routes of the early empire. (See Image:Han foreign relations CE 2.jpg)



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