Image:Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara.jpg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

No higher resolution available.

Irrigation_in_the_Heart_of_the_Sahara.jpg (540 × 405 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Wikimedia Commons logo This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The description on its description page there is shown below.
Commons is attempting to create a freely licensed media file repository. You can help.


Español: Vista aérea de un sistema de riego con pivote central.

Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( Egypt)

cropped from Image:L7 egypt aquifer.jpg

Source: NASA

Caption of source site, including animation:

Credit: Images and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data aqcuired by the Landsat 7 Science Team Landsat data is archived and distributed by the USGS EROS Data Centre
Satellite: Landsat 7
Sensor: ETM+
Date: 12-23-2001
VE Record ID: 12100

Description: Although it is now the largest desert on Earth, during the last ice age the Sahara was a savannah with a climate similar to that of present-day Kenya and Tanzania. The annual rainfall was much greater than it is now, creating many rivers and lakes that are now hidden under shifting sands or exposed as barren salt flats. Over several hundred thousand years the rains also filled a series of vast underground aquifers. Modern African nations are now mining this fossil water to support irrigated farming projects.

The above pair of images shows a small settlement just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan. The dark circles—each about a kilometer across—indicate central-pivot irrigation. A well drilled in the centre of each circle supplies water to a rotating series of sprinklers. From October 31, 1999 to December 23, 2001 the number of irrigated fields increased dramatically.

Rainfall in this area of the Sahara is only a few centimeters a year, so the aquifers will take thousands of years (or longer) to recharge, making the water a non-renewable resource. Although no one knows how much water is beneath the Sahara, hydrologists estimate that it will only be economical to pump water for fifty years or so. On the other hand, alternative technologies for providing fresh water in this arid region—primarily desalinization—are too expensive for widespread use. Sudan, Libya, Chad, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria are some of the other Saharan nations irrigating with fossil water, but the practice is not limited to Africa. In the southern plains of the United States, the Ogallala aquifer is being drained faster than it can be replenished.

These true-colour images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard NASA’s Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat satellites enable scientists to monitor land use and land cover change dating back to 1972. Landsat 7 is designed to last until at least 2004, and follow-on missions are currently being planned.

Public domain This file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA. NASA copyright policy states that "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". ( NASA copyright policy page or JPL Image Use Policy).


  • Use of NASA logos (which include the current "meatball" logo, the old "worm" logo, and the seal) is restricted.
  • The NASA website hosts a large number of images from the Soviet/ Russian space agency, and other non-American space agencies. These are not in the public domain.
  • Materials from the Hubble Space Telescope may be copyrighted if they do not explicitly come from the STScI.
  • All materials created by the SOHO probe are copyrighted and require permission for commercial non-educational use.
  • Images featured on the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) web site may be copyrighted.

The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed):