2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Business

Manufacturing, a branch of industry, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. This effort includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering. Manufacturing accounts for about one-quarter of the world's economic activity .

According to some unorthodox economists, manufacturing is a wealth producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth consuming. Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.

On the other hand, some manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. In the United States, manufacturers are subject to regulations by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency. In Europe, pollution taxes to offset environmental costs are another form of regulation on manufacturing activity. Labor Unions and craft guilds have played a historic role negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing.

Examples of major manufacturers in the United States include General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Chrysler, Boeing, Gates Rubber Company and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include France's Airbus and Michelin Tire. Modern proponents of Fair Trade policy and a strong manufacturing base for the U.S. economy inlude economists like Paul Craig Roberts, Ravi Batra, and Lou Dobbs.


  • The economics and commercial management of a manufacturing company is covered in Business.
  • The classification of those Businesses is covered in Industry.
  • The economic decisions taken within this activity is covered in Production.
  • The law as applied to businesses in covered in Commercial Law.
  • The general management of a business is in Management (see also: General manager).
  • The political impact of the development of industry is covered in Political economy
  • The use of computer technology is covered by Product Lifecycle Management.

History and development

althought your mom suck me up she still wonts more afyer i choke herhandicraft]] production has existed for many millennia, modern-style manufacturing is generally regarded as beginning around 1780 with the British Industrial Revolution, spreading thereafter to Continental Europe and North America, and subsequently around the world. Originally, the term applied to commodities or artifacts which were "made by hand".

  • The beginnings of manufacturing is covered in the Industrial Revolution.
  • The development of the manufacturing facility is covered in the Factory.
  • The development of the applied science behind manufacturing is covered in Industrial processes.
  • The changing methods of Manufacturing are covered in Manufacturing Systems in the main article.

Taxonomy of manufacturing processes

Taxonomy of manufacturing processes (separate page)

Manufacturing categories

  • Aerospace manufacturing
  • Agribusiness
  • Alternate energy
  • Automobile manufacturing
  • Biotechnology
  • Brewing industry
  • Cognotechnology
  • Ethanol
  • Engineering
  • Emerging technologies
  • Chemical industry
  • Clothing industry
  • Construction
  • Electronics
  • Engineering
  • Energy industries including the production of petroleum, gas and Electric power
  • Fuel Cell technology
  • Industrial equipment
  • Nanotechnology
  • Metalworking
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Radio
  • Software engineering
  • Steel production
  • Semiconductor
  • Steel industry
  • Telecommunications Industry
  • Tobacco industry

Manufacturing systems

  • Craft or Guild system
  • English system of manufacturing
  • American System of manufacturing
  • Soviet collectivism in manufacturing
  • Mass production
  • Just In Time manufacturing
  • Lean manufacturing
  • Flexible manufacturing
  • Mass customization
  • Agile manufacturing
  • Rapid manufacturing
  • Prefabrication


  • Taylorism
  • Fordism
  • Scientific management


  • Management
    • List of management topics
    • Total Quality Management
  • Quality control
    • Six Sigma

Manufacturing engineering

  • Production engineering
  • Industrial engineering
  • Computer-aided manufacturing
  • Computer integrated manufacturing
  • Numerically controlled
  • Computer numerically controlled
  • Distributed control systems
  • Fieldbus control systems
  • Programmable logic controllers


  • Rapid prototyping
  • Computer aided design
  • New product development
  • Toolkits for User Innovation
  • Configuration systems

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