2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Europe; European Cities

Prague (Praha)
Golden City
Prague by night
Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae

(Prague, Capital of the Republic; Latin)

Country Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic
Region Capital City of Czech
River Vltava
Elevation 179-399  m (-1,130 ft)
Area 496  km² (191.51  sq mi)
 - metro 6,977  km² (2,694  sq mi)
Population 1,218,644 (2008-3-31)
 - metro 1,964,750
Density 2,457 / km² (6,364 / sq mi)
Founded 9th century
Mayor Pavel Bém
Timezone CET ( UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST ( UTC+2)
Postal code 1xx xx
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Name Historic Centre of Prague
Year 1992 (#16)
Number 616
Region Europe and North America
Criteria ii, iv, vi

Prague (IPA: /ˈprɑːg/, Czech: Praha (IPA [ˈpraɦa]), see also other names), is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Its official name is Hlavní město Praha, meaning Prague - the Capital City.

Situated on the River Vltava in central Bohemia, Prague has been the political, cultural, and economic centre of the Czech state for over 1100 years. The city proper is home to more than 1.2 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 1.9 million.

Prague is widely considered to be one of the most beautiful cities in Europe and is among the most visited cities on the continent. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. According to Guinness World Records, Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in the world. Nicknames for Prague have included "the mother of cities" (Praga mater urbium, or "Praha matka měst" in Czech)", "city of a hundred spires" and "the golden city".


The history of Prague spans over thousands of years, during which time the city grew from the Vyšehrad Castle to the multicultural capital of a modern European state, the Czech Republic.

Ancient Prague

Vltava river
Vltava river
Charles Bridge.
Charles Bridge.

The area on which Prague was founded was settled in ancient times since the Paleolithic Age. Around 200 BC the Celts had a settlement in the south, called Závist, but later they were replaced by Germanic tribes. The Slavs conquered the site from the 4th century AD onward, though for a period were subdued by the Eurasian Avars. According to a legend, Prague was founded by the Princess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the dynasty with the same name. Whether this legend is true or not, Prague's first nucleus was founded in the latter part of the 9th century as a castle on a hill commanding the right bank of the Vltava: this is known as Vyšehrad ("high castle") to differentiate from another castle which was later erected on the opposite bank, the future Prague Castle. Soon the city became the seat of the dukes and kings of Bohemia. It was an important seat for trading where merchants coming from all Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub. The Old New Synagogue of 1270 survives. The city became a bishopric in 973.

King Vladislav II had a first bridge on the Vltava built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, which crumbled down in 1342. The Charles Bridge was later built on its foundations.

From the Charles Bridge.
From the Charles Bridge.

In 1257, under King Otakar II, Malá Strana ("Lesser Quarter") was founded in Prague in the future Hradčany area: it was the district of the German people. These had the right to administrate the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg Rights. The new district was on the opposite bank of the Staré Město ("Old Town"), which had a borough status and was defended by a line of walls and fortifications.

The era of Charles IV

Prague Castle at night.
Prague Castle at night.
St. Vitus Cathedral.
St. Vitus Cathedral.

The city flourished during the 14th century reign of Charles IV of the new Luxembourg dynasty. He ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the Old Town. The Charles Bridge was erected to connect the new district to Malá Strana. Monuments by Charles include the Saint Vitus Cathedral, the oldest gothic cathedral in central Europe, which is actually inside the Castle, and the Charles University. The latter is the oldest university in central Europe. Prague was then the third-largest city in Europe. Under Charles Prague was, from 1355, the actual capital of the Holy Roman Empire, and its rank was elevated to that of archbishopric (1344). It had a mint, and German and Italian merchants, as well as bankers, were present in the city. The social order, however, became more turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen's guild (themselves often torn by internal fights), and the presence of increasing number of poor people.

Under King Wenceslas IV (1378-1419) Jan Hus, a theologian and lector at the University, held his preachers and sermons in Prague. Since 1402 he summoned his followers in the Bethlehem Chapel, speaking in Czech language in order to enlarge as much as possible the diffusion of his ideas about the renovation of the church. Having become too dangerous for the political and religious establishment, Hus was burned in Konstanz in 1415. Four years later Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague priest Jan Želivský and threw the city's counsellors from the New Town Hall. Hus' death had spurred the so-called Hussite Wars. In 1420 peasant rebels, led by the famous general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated the Bohemian King Sigismund, in the Battle of Vítkov Hill.

In the following two centuries Prague strengthened its role as a merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings were erected, including the Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle.

The Habsburg era

In 1526 the Kingdom of Bohemia was handed over to the House of Habsburg: the fervent Catholicism of its members was to have grievous consequences in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were having instead increasing success. These problems were not preeminent under Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia in 1576, who chose Prague as his home. He lived in the Prague Castle where he held his bizarre courts of astrologers, magicians, and other strange figures. Rudolf was an art lover too and Prague became the capital of European culture. This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poetess Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others.

In 1618 the famous Defenestration of Prague provoked the Thirty Years' War. Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine. But the Czech army was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain (1620), not far from the city, and thenceforth Prague and Bohemia lived a harsh period in which religious tolerance was abolished and Catholic Counter-Reformation became dominant in every aspect of life. In 1621 there was an execution of 27 Czech lords (involved in the Battle of White Mountain) in the Old Town Square. The city suffered also under Saxon (1631) and Swedish (1648) occupation. Moreover, after the Peace of Westphalia of the latter year, Ferdinand moved the court to Vienna, and Prague began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000.

In 1689 a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713–1714, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague one last time. The economic rise continued through the following century, and the city in 1771 had 80,000 inhabitants. Many of these were rich merchants who, together with noblemen of German, Spanish and even Italian origin, enriched the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens, creating a Baroque style renowned throughout the world. In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana, Nové Město, Staré Město and Hradcany were merged into a single entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. The Industrial Revolution had a strong effect in Prague, as factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby region. A first suburb, Karlín, was created in 1817, and twenty years later population exceeded 100,000. The first railway connection was built in 1842.

The revolutions that shocked all Europe around 1848 touched Prague too, but they were fiercely suppressed. In the following years the Czech nationalist movement (opposed to another nationalist party, the German one) began its rise, until it gained the majority in the Town Council in 1861.

20th century

The Jerusalem Synagogue, built in 1905 to 1906 by Wilhelm Stiassny, of Bratislava, is the largest Jewish place of worship in Prague
The Jerusalem Synagogue, built in 1905 to 1906 by Wilhelm Stiassny, of Bratislava, is the largest Jewish place of worship in Prague

At the beginning of the 20th century Czech lands were the most productive part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and some Czech politics began with attempts to separate it from Habsburg empire.

1st Republic

article about First Republic of Czechoslovakia

World War I ended with the defeat of the Austrian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president ( Tomáš Masaryk). At this time Prague was a true European capital with a very developed industry. In 1930 the population had risen to a startling 850,000.

Second World War

article about the Occupation of Czechoslovakia

Hitler ordered Germany's army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939 and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. For most of its history Prague had been a multiethnic city with important Czech, German, and (mostly Czech- and/ or German-speaking) Jewish populations. From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, and during World War II, most Jews either fled the city or were killed in the Holocaust.

In 1942 Prague was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany - Reinhard Heydrich (during Operation Anthropoid). Hitler ordered bloody reprisals. At the end of the war Prague suffered several bombing raids by the U.S. Air Force. Over 1000 people were killed and hundreds of buildings, factories and historical landmarks were destroyed. Prague revolted against the Nazi occupants in 5 May 1945. Four days later the Soviet army entered the city. The majority of German population either fled or was expelled in the aftermath of the war.

Prague during the Cold War

Prague was a city in the territory of military and political control of the Soviet Union (see Iron Curtain). The 4th Czechoslovakian Writers' Congress held in the city in 1967 took a strong position against the regime. This spurred the new secretary of the Communist Party, Alexander Dubček to proclaim a new deal in his city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the "socialism with a human face". It was the Prague Spring, which aimed at the renovation of institutions in a democratic way. The Soviet Union and its allies reacted with the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the capital in August 1968 by 7,000 tanks, suppressing any attempt at renovation.

Packed with tourists on a busy summer day in Malá Strana (The Lesser Quarter), Prague
Packed with tourists on a busy summer day in Malá Strana (The Lesser Quarter), Prague

Era after the Velvet Revolution

In 1989, after riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague and the Czech capital benefited greatly of the new mood. In 1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic. In the late 90's Prague became again an important cultural centre of Europe and was notably influenced by globalization. In 2000 anti-globalization protests in Prague (some 15,000 protesters) turned violent during the IMF and World Bank summits. In 2002 Prague suffered from widespread flooding.


The Astronomical Clock
The Astronomical Clock
Milunić and Gehry's Dancing House
Milunić and Gehry's Dancing House

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague has become one of Europe's (and the world's) most popular tourist destinations. It is the sixth most-visited European city after London, Paris, Rome, Madrid and Berlin. Prague suffered considerably less damage during World War II than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. It contains one of the world's most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Art Nouveau to Baroque, Renaissance, Cubist, Gothic, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern. Some of the most known sights are:

  • Old Town (Staré Město) with its Old Town Square
  • The Astronomical Clock
  • The picturesque Charles Bridge
  • The vaulted gothic Old New Synagogue of 1270.
  • New Town (Nové město) with its busy and historic Wenceslas Square
  • Malá Strana (Lesser Quarter)
  • Prague Castle (the largest castle in the world) with its St. Vitus Cathedral
  • Josefov (the old Jewish quarter) with Old Jewish Cemetery and Old New Synagogue
  • Jan Žižka equestrian statue in Vítkov park, Žižkov - Prague 3.
  • The Lennon Wall
  • Vinohrady
  • The museum of Heydrich assassination in the crypt of the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius
  • National Museum
  • Vyšehrad castle
  • Petřínská rozhledna, an observation tower on Petřín hill, which resembles the Eiffel Tower
  • Anděl (neighbourhood) which is probably the busiest part of the city with a super modern shopping mall and architecture
  • Žižkov Television Tower with observation deck - Prague 3.
  • The New Jewish Cemetery in Olšany, location of Franz Kafka's grave - Prague 3.
  • The Metronome, a giant, functional metronome that looms over the city
  • The Dancing House (Fred and Ginger Building)
  • The Mucha Museum, showcasing the Art Nouveau works of Alfons Mucha
  • Places connected to writers living in the city, such as Franz Kafka (One popular destination is the Franz Kafka museum)


Wenceslas Square and National Museum at night.
Wenceslas Square and National Museum at night.

Prague is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events.

Significant cultural institutions:

  • National Theatre
  • Estates Theatre, premiere of Mozart's Don Giovanni was held there
  • The Rudolfinum (home to the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra)
  • State Opera
  • National Museum
  • Náprstek Museum
  • National Library
  • National Gallery

There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. Prague hosts Music Festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague Autumn International Music Festival and the Prague International Organ Festival. Film Festivals include the Febiofest, the One World and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. Prague also hosts the Prague Writers Festival, the Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival as well as hundreds of Vernissages and Fashion Shows.

Many films have been made at the Barrandov Studios. Hollywood movies set in Prague include Mission Impossible, Blade II and xXx. Among others, Czech films Empties and The Fifth Horseman is Fear were shot in Prague. Also, the music video to Diamonds from Sierra Leone by Kanye West was shot in Prague, and features shots of the Charles Bridge and the Astronomical Clock, among others.

Prague restaurant Allegro received the 1st Michelin star in the whole Eastern Europe (post-communist Europe).


The GDP per capita of Prague is more than double that of the Czech Republic as a whole, with a per-capita GDP (PPP) of 33,784 (purchasing power standard) in 2004, which is 157.1% of the European Union average, ranking Prague among the 12 richest EU regions , in Purchasing Power. However, the price level is significantly lower than in comparable cities.

The city is the site of the European headquarters of many international companies.

Since the late 1990s, Prague has become a popular filming location for international productions and Hollywood motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proved attractive to international film production companies.

Colleges and universities

The city contains several universities and colleges:

  • Charles University (UK) founded in 1348 (the oldest university in Central and Eastern Europe)
  • Czech Technical University (ČVUT) founded in 1707
  • Academy of Fine Arts (AVU) founded in 1800
  • Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design (VŠUP) founded in 1885
  • The New Anglo-American College (AAC) founded in 1990
  • Institute of Chemical Technology (VŠCHT) founded in 1920
  • Academy of Performing Arts (AMU) founded in 1945
  • Czech University of Agriculture (ČZU) founded in 1906/1952
  • University of Economics (VŠE) founded in 1953
  • Institute of Information Theory and Automation (UTIA) founded in 1959
  • University of New York in Prague (UNYP) founded in 1998


Střížkov metro station on line C
Střížkov metro station on line C
The "nostalgic tram" no. 91 runs through the city centre
The "nostalgic tram" no. 91 runs through the city centre

The public transport infrastructure consists of an integrated transport system of Prague Metro (with 54 stations in total), Prague Tram System (including the "nostalgic tram" no. 91), buses, the Petřín funicular to Petřín Hill, and three ferries. All services have a common ticketing system, and are run by Prague Public Transit Co. Inc. (Dopravní podnik hl. m. Prahy, a.s.) and some other companies ( full list).


The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the Czech Republic and abroad. There is also a commuter rail system serving Prague metropolitan area.

Prague has two international railway stations, Hlavní nádraží (sometimes referred to as Wilsonovo nádraží) and Praha-Holešovice. Intercity services also stop at the main stations Praha-Smíchov and Masarykovo nádraží. In addition to these, there are a number of smaller suburban stations. In the future rail should play a greater role in Prague Public Transport System.


Prague is served by Ruzyně International Airport, the biggest airport in the Czech Republic and one of the busiest in Central and Eastern Europe. It is the hub of the flag carrier, Czech Airlines and of the low-cost airlines SkyEurope and Smart Wings operating throughout Europe. Other airfields in Prague include the city's original airport in the suburb of Kbely, and Letňany which is mainly used for private aviation and domestic flights. Tocna is located in the southwest part of the city and serves mostly as an aeroclub.


Taxi services in Prague can be divided into two sectors. There are major taxicab companies, operating call-for-taxi services (radio-taxi) or from regulated taxi stands, and independent drivers, who make pickups on the street. The latter are notorious for overcharging targeted mainly at foreign tourists and are possibly managed by (mob) crime organizations. For airport transportation the safest solution is to book the ride in advance through an on-line transfer company, like


Image:Stadion Eden.jpg
Eden football stadium, home for Slavia Prague club

Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams

  • Prague International Marathon
  • Slavia Prague -> UEFA Champions League
  • Sparta Prague -> UEFA Cup
  • O2 arena -> NHL 2008 Opening Game, 2004 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and Euroleague Final Four
  • Strahov Stadium — the second-largest stadium in the world
  • Mystic SK8 Cup — World cup of skateboarding
  • Prague Open — prestige Floorball cup
  • Prague Cup — annual synchronized skating competition

Prague as a venue

Recent major events held in Prague:

  • 21st Coaltrans World Coal Conference 2001
  • NATO Summit 2002
  • International Monetary Fund and World Bank Summit 2000
  • International Olympic Committee Session 2004
  • International Astronomical Union General Assembly 2006

International relations

Prague is involved in a number of official as well as unofficial partnerships with other major world cities. The city of Prague also maintains its own EU delegation in Brussels called Prague House.

Partner cities:



In Popular culture

  • In 1968 as a response to the Soviet Invasion of the city, the Israeli singer Shalom Hanoch wrote a song, also named "Prague", about the invasion which was sung by Arik Einstein. Although it was received badly at first, it later on began to be received more warmly by audiences in Israel and in the Czech Republic.

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