Mogadishu

2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Africa; Cities

Mogadishu
مقديشو ("the Palace of Shah")
Mogadishu Skyline, July 2007
Mogadishu Skyline, July 2007
Nickname(s): Xamar
Mogadishu's location in Somalia
Mogadishu's location in Somalia
Coordinates:
Country Somalia
Region Banadir
Government
 - Mayor Mohamed Omar Habeb Dhere
 - Police chief Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid
Population (2006)
 - Total 1,700,000
Time zone EAT ( UTC+2)
 - Summer ( DST) EAT ( UTC+3)

Mogadishu [mogaˈdɪʃu] ( Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: مقديشوMaqadīshū; Italian: Mogadiscio) is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital.

Located in the coastal Benadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important regional port for centuries.

With the collapse of the central government in 1991, Mogadishu has been the stage for 17 years of fighting between rival militias. Years of civil unrest and uncontrolled insurgencies have transformed Mogadishu into one of the most dangerous and lawless cities in the world. Estimates of the city's current population vary greatly, with figures ranging from 1.5 million to 3 million.

History

area of Mogadishu, with a U.S. Marine Corps helicopter in the foreground, December 1992.">Aerial view of a residential area of Mogadishu, with a U.S. Marine Corps helicopter in the foreground, December 1992.
Aerial view of a residential area of Mogadishu, with a U.S. Marine Corps helicopter in the foreground, December 1992.

Trade connected Somalis in the Mogadishu area to other communities along the Indian coast as early as the 1st century according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. With Muslim traders from the Arabian Peninsula arriving circa 900 AD, Mogadishu was well-suited to become a regional centre for commerce. The northernmost of the East African city-states, Mogadishu prospered through trade with the interior, which spread Islam throughout Somalia. The Portuguese visited the city but never took it. In 1871 Barghash bin Said, the sultan of Zanzibar, occupied the city.

In 1892, Ali bin Said leased the city to Italy. Italy purchased the city in 1905 and made Mogadishu the capital of Italian Somaliland. The surrounding territory came under Italian control in 1936 after heavy resistance. In World War II British forces from Kenya captured Mogadishu on February 26, 1941. The British ruled until the Italian Trust Administration of Somalia (AFIS), established by the United Nations, began on 1 April 1950 to administer the former Somali colony as a protectorate to prepare it for independence. Somalia became independent on 1 July 1960 with Mogadishu as its capital.

Rebel forces entered and took the city in 1990, forcing President Mohamed Siad Barre to resign and flee in January 1991 to Lagos, Nigeria. One faction proclaimed Ali Mahdi Muhammad president, another Mohamed Farrah Aidid. A contingent of United States Marines landed near Mogadishu on December 9, 1992 to spearhead the United Nations peacekeeping forces during Operation Restore Hope.

Mogadishu was scene of bitter warfare and devastation caused by fighting between Ethiopian troops, which invaded Somalia to support a fragile government, and Islamist guerrillas. Fighting escalated in March–April 2007, November 2007 and April 2008 with hundreds of civilian casualties.

Mogadishu is the hometown of the Abgaal, a Somali clan.

Geography

Climate chart for Mogadishu
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1
 
30
23
 
 
0
 
30
23
 
 
8
 
31
25
 
 
57
 
32
26
 
 
55
 
31
25
 
 
82
 
30
24
 
 
57
 
29
23
 
 
40
 
29
23
 
 
23
 
29
23
 
 
26
 
30
24
 
 
36
 
30
24
 
 
7
 
30
24
temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm

Mogadishu is located at . The Shebelle River (Webiga Shabelle) rises in central Ethiopia and comes within 30 kilometers (19 mi) of the Indian Ocean near Mogadishu before turning southwestward. Usually dry during February and March, the river provides water essential for the cultivation of sugarcane, cotton, and bananas.

Features of the city include the Hamarwein Old Town, the Bakaara Market, and the former resort of Gezira Beach. The sandy beaches of Mogadishu are reported, by the few Western travelers, to be among the most beautiful in the world, with easy access to vibrant coral reefs.

Mogadishu is located in the Country of the Abgaal, a Hawiye subclan [ref]

Economy

Mogadishu serves as a commercial and financial centre. The economy has recovered somewhat from the civil unrest although the Somali Civil War still presents many problems. The effective absence of government yields free trade without taxes or regulatory expenditures, making business relatively inexpensive. Businesses have hired armed militias to provide security against gunmen, leading to a gradual reduction in street violence. However, because of the absence of federal authorities, extremely high levels of crime including frequent murders and occasional bombings are still rampant in the city.

Principal industries include food and beverage processing and textiles, especially cotton ginning. The main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets.

Telcom a telecommunications network operator in Somalia has its headquarters in the city.

Transportation

Aerial view of the Port of Mogadishu in 1992. Three cargo ships, large, medium and small sized vessels are moored to the docks. A tugboat is heading out of the port.
Aerial view of the Port of Mogadishu in 1992. Three cargo ships, large, medium and small sized vessels are moored to the docks. A tugboat is heading out of the port.

Road

Roads leading out of Mogadishu connect the city to many other Somali locales and to Ethiopia and Kenya.

Air

Private airlines service Mogadishu at various airports within and around the city. The intense fighting largely destroyed the old Aden Adde International Airport, which briefly reopened before the War in Somalia (2006-present). As of 2007, K50 Airport serves Mogadishu.

Sea

Mogadishu leads Somalia in port traffic and still serves as a major seaport. International traders actively benefit from its de facto duty-free status. However, piracy is widespread around Somalia's coastal areas, making sea transport risky.

Government

Image:Simad.jpg
Somali Institute of Management and Administration (SIMAD), 2006.

Mogadishu has had no official government for many years now since the city was mostly controlled by various heavily-armed militias and factions. In recent years, however, the Transitional Federal Government, with the help of foreign troops, appears to have finally amassed the necessary military wherewithal to engage the militias and reestablish the rule of law.

Education

The Mogadishu University is a non-governmental university that is governed by the Board of Trustees and the University Council. The Somalia National University has been closed indefinitely due to extensive damage. Benadir University was started in 2002 with the intention of training doctors but has expanded into other fields. Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development (SIMAD) has given the priority to the areas of business administration, information technology and accountancy due to human capital shortage in the country's private sector management.

Sport

The city is home to the Mogadiscio Stadium, which plays host to the Somalia Cup and to football (soccer) teams from the Somalia League.

Notable Mogadishans

Born in Modagishu, supermodel Iman was the first Somali woman to appear on the cover of Vogue in 1979 and to sign a cosmetics contract.
Born in Modagishu, supermodel Iman was the first Somali woman to appear on the cover of Vogue in 1979 and to sign a cosmetics contract.
  • Iman, Model
  • K'naan, Artist
  • Fatima Siad, Model

Retrieved from " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mogadishu"
The Schools Wikipedia was sponsored by a UK Children's Charity, SOS Children UK , and is mainly selected from the English Wikipedia with only minor checks and changes (see www.wikipedia.org for details of authors and sources). The articles are available under the GNU Free Documentation License. See also our Disclaimer.