1919

2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Years

Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
Decades: 1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -   1920s   1930s   1940s
Years: 1916 1917 1918 - 1919 - 1920 1921 1922

Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1919

January

1 January: Iolaire sinks.
1 January: Iolaire sinks.
  • 1 January
    • In Scotland, HMS Iolaire sinks on the rocks: 205 die.
    • Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company.
    • Spartacist uprising: Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution.
  • 7 January - Estonian Freedom War: Soviet Army meet resistance from Estonian forces.
  • 9 January - Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action.
  • 10 January- 12 January - The Freikorps attacks Spartacus supporters around Berlin.
  • 11 January - Romania annexes Transylvania.
  • 13 January - Worker's councils in Berlin end the general strike; Spartacus week is over.
  • 15 January
    • Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacus uprising.
    • The Boston Molasses Disaster: A wave of molasses sweeps through Boston, killing 21 and injuring 150.
    • Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes Premier of Poland.
  • 16 January - The 18th Amendment, authorizing Prohibition, goes into effect in the United States.
  • 18 January
    • World War I: A peace conference opens in Versailles, France.
    • Bentley Motors is founded.
  • 21 January
    • The First Dáil Éireann meets in the Mansion House in Dublin.
    • Ambush of police at Soloheadbeg marks the beginning of the Irish War of Independence.
  • 23 January - The Uprising of Khotin breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine.
  • 25 January - The League of Nations is founded.
  • 31 January - 1919 Battle of George Square.
  • Estonian Freedom War: The Red Army is expelled from the entire territory of Estonia.
David Kirkwood being detained by police during the 1919 Battle of George Square
David Kirkwood being detained by police during the 1919 Battle of George Square

February

  • 3 February - Soviet troops occupy the Ukraine.
  • 11 February - Friedrich Ebert (SPD), is elected President of Germany.
  • 14 February - The Polish-Soviet War begins.
  • 23 February - The Fascist Party is formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini.
  • 25 February - Oregon places a 1 cent per US gallon (.26 ¢/L) tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
  • 26 February
  • 28 February - Amanullah Khan becomes King of Afghanistan.

March

  • 1 March - March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea.
  • 2 March - The first Communist International meets in Moscow.
  • 3 March - The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction of Charles Schenck.
  • 9 March - The 1919 Revolution breaks out in Egypt.
  • 15 March - The American Legion forms in Paris.
  • 21 March - The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun.
  • 23 March - In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
  • 31 March - A general strike begins in the Ruhr.

April

  • 6 April- 7 April - The Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded.
  • 12 April - Murderer Henri Désiré Landru is arrested.
  • 13 April - At the Amritsar Massacre in the Punjab in India, British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs.
  • 14 April - The Emperor of Austria moves to exile in Switzerland.
  • 23 April - The Constituent Assembly of Estonia convenes its first session.
  • 25 April
    • The Bauhaus movement is founded.
    • ANZAC day is celebrated for the first time in Australia.
    • Pancho Villa takes Parral in Mexico, and hangs the mayor and his two sons.
  • 30 April - Several bombs are intercepted in the first wave of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.

May

  • 1 May
    • Large left-wing demonstration in France leads to a violent confrontation with the police
    • Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 people are killed, 40 injured, and 116 arrested.
  • 3 May - Weimar Republic troops and Freikorps occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
  • 4 May - The May Fourth Movement opposes foreign colonizers in China.
  • 5 May - The League of Red Cross Societies is founded in Paris
  • 9 May - In Belgium a new electoral law introduced universal manhood suffrage and gave the franchise to certain classes of women.
  • 15 May - Winnipeg workers launch a general strike for better wages and working conditions.
  • 16 May
    • A U.S. Navy Curtiss aircraft NC-4 commanded by Albert Cushing Read departs Trepassey, Newfoundland, for Lisbon via the Azores on the first transatlantic flight
    • An Hellenic Army lands at Smyrna.
  • 17 May - A Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg General Strike.
  • 19 May - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, initiating what was later termed the Turkish War of Independence. The anniversary of this event is the official commemoration date of the Pontic Greek Genocide in Greece and Cyprus.
  • 23 May - The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
  • 25 May - Volcano Kelut erupts in Java, killing 16,000.
  • 29 May
  • 30 May - By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium was given the mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda and Urundi).

June

  • 2 June - Several mail bombs are sent to prominent figures as part of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
  • 4 June - Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.
  • 6 June - The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Prekmurian Republic.
  • 14 June - John Alcock and Arthur Brown depart St. John's, Newfoundland on the first nonstop transatlantic flight (they land at Clifden, County Galway, Ireland the next day).
  • 15 June - Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez. When the bullets begin to fly to the US side of the border, 2 units of the US 7th Cavalry regiment cross the border and repulse Villa's forces.
  • 21 June
    • Royal Canadian Mounted Police (North-West Mounted Police) fire a volley into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two, during the Winnipeg General Strike.
    • Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney; 9 Germans die.
    • The American Winged Foot Express catches on fire over downtown Chicago; 2 passengers, 1 crewmember and 10 people on the ground are killed; only 2 people parachute to the ground safely.
  • 23 June - Estonian Freedom War: Estonian army wins the Battle of Cēsis in Northern Latvia against the German Landeswehr.
  • 28 June - The Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending World War I.

July

  • 6 July - The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic by an airship.
  • 31 July - Policemen in London and Liverpool strike for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers. Over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.

August

  • 1 August Béla Kun's Soviet Republic collapses in Hungary.
  • 11 August
    • The first NFL team for Wisconsin (The Green Bay Packers) is founded by Curly Lambeau.
    • In Germany, the Weimar Constitution is passed into law.
  • 18 August - The Bolshevik fleet, at Kronstadt near Petrograd, is destroyed by British aircraft and torpedo boats in a combined operation.
  • 19 August - Afghanistan gains independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 16 August- 26 August - First Silesian Uprising: The Poles in Upper Silesia rise against the Germans.
  • 31 August - The American Communist Party is established.

September

  • 10 September - The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Austria.
  • 10 September - 15 September: The Florida Keys Hurricane kills 600 in the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Texas.
  • The Steel strike of 1919 begins.
  • 23 September - Belenenses is founded.
  • 27 September - The last British troops leave Archangel, Russia and leave the fighting to the Russians.
  • 28 September - Omaha Riot: A lynch mob besieges the police station and courthouse in Omaha, Nebraska, and lynches alleged black rapist Will Brown.

October

  • 1 October - The Elaine Race Riot breaks out in Arkansas.
  • 2 October - US President Woodrow Wilson suffers a massive stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed.
  • 9 October
    • Black Sox scandal: The Cincinnati Reds "win" the World Series.
    • The Boston Police Strike occurs.
  • 13 October - The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed.
  • 28 October - Prohibition begins: The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto.

November

  • 10 November - The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minnesota">Minneapolis, Minnesota (convention ends 12 November).
  • 11 November - The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results in the deaths of four members of the American Legion, and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
  • 16 November - After Entente pressure Romanian forces withdraw from Budapest and let Admiral Horthy to march in.
  • 19 November - The confirmation is announced of Einstein's general relativity theory, tested by Arthur Eddington and Andrew Crommelin in total solar eclipse on 29 May 1919 FirstScience.
  • 27 November - The Treaty of Neuilly is signed between the Allies and Bulgaria.
  • 28 November - The American-born Lady Astor is elected to the British House of Commons, becoming on 1 December the first female MP to take a seat.
  • 30 November - Health officials declare that the global Spanish Flu pandemic has ended.

December

  • 5 December - The Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from military service.
  • 12 December - Gabriele D'Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces the Italian troops to join him.
  • 25 December - The opening of Cliftonhill stadium in Coatbridge the home of Albion Rovers F.C. The match saw them lose 2 - 0 to St. Mirren.
  • 30 December - Lincoln's Inn, in London admits its first female bar student.

Undated

  • Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
  • Les Champs Magnetiques, the first automatic book, is written by Andre Breton and Philippe Soupault.
  • XWA (now CFCF), in Montreal, Quebec, becomes the first public radio station in North America to go on the air.
  • Various strikes in USA: Strike of US railroad workers; Longshoreman's strike; The Great Steel Strike; General strike in Seattle, Washington.
  • Female suffrage is enacted in Germany and Luxembourg.
  • Marcel Tolkowsky's Diamond Design is published.
  • The International Astronomical Union is founded.
  • World League Against Alcoholism established by Anti-Saloon League
  • The fictional character Ham Gravy debuts in Thimble Theatre.

Ongoing

  • Åland crisis
  • Ethnic cleansing in Turkey: The Armenian Genocide
  • Assyrian Genocide (19141922)
  • Pontic Greek Genocide (19161923).

Births

1919 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1919
MCMXIX
Ab urbe condita 2672
Armenian calendar 1368
ԹՎ ՌՅԿԸ
Bahá'í calendar 75 – 76
Berber calendar 2869
Buddhist calendar 2463
Burmese calendar 1281
Byzantine calendar 7427 – 7428
Chinese calendar 戊午年十一月三十日
(4555/4615-11-30)
— to —
己未年十一月初十日
(4556/4616-11-10)
Coptic calendar 1635 – 1636
Ethiopian calendar 1911 – 1912
Hebrew calendar 5679 – 5680
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1974 – 1975
 - Shaka Samvat 1841 – 1842
 - Kali Yuga 5020 – 5021
Holocene calendar 11919
Iranian calendar 1297 – 1298
Islamic calendar 1337 – 1338
Japanese calendar Taishō 8
(大正8年)
Korean calendar 4252
Thai solar calendar 2462

January-February

  • 1 January - J. D. Salinger, American novelist
  • 5 January - Hector Abhayavardhana, Sri Lankan political theorist
  • 13 January - Robert Stack, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 14 January - Andy Rooney, American journalist
  • 15 January - George Cadle Price, first Prime Minister of Belize
  • 23 January
    • Hans Hass, Austrian zoologist
    • Ernie Kovacs, American comedian (d. 1962)
    • Bob Paisley, British football player and manager (d. 1996)
  • 24 January - Leon Kirchner, American composer
  • 25 January - Edwin Newman, American journalist and writer
    • Eula Beal, American contralto
  • 26 January - Valentino Mazzola, Italian footballer (d. 1949)
  • 27 January - Ross Bagdasarian, American musician and actor (d. 1972)
  • 31 January - Jackie Robinson, baseball player (d. 1972)
  • 5 February
    • Red Buttons, American actor (d. 2006)
    • Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1996)
  • 9 February - Langdon Brown Gilkey - American Christian Protestant ecumenical theologian (d. 2004)
  • 11 February
    • Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress (d. 1995)
    • Eddie Robinson, American football coach (d. 2007)
  • 12 February - Forrest Tucker, American actor (d. 1986)
  • 13 February - Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991)
  • 16 February - Charlie Parlato, American musician (d. 2007)
  • 18 February - Jack Palance, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 20 February - Joe Krol, Canadian football player
  • 24 February - Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004)
  • 26 February
    • Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)
    • Mason Adams, American character actor (d. 2005)

March-April

  • 2 March - Jennifer Jones, American actress
  • 4 March - Buck Baker, American racecar driver (d. 2002)
  • 15 March - Lawrence Tierney, American actor (d. 2002)
  • 17 March - Nat King Cole, American singer (d. 1965)
  • 24 March - Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American author and publisher
  • 24 March - Robert Heilbroner, American economist (d. 2005)
  • 29 March - Eileen Heckart, American actress (d. 2001)
  • 30 March - McGeorge Bundy, U.S. National Security Advisor (d. 1996)
  • 1 April - Joseph Murray, American surgeon, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 8 April - Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (d. 2007)
  • 13 April - Phil Tonken, American radio and television announcer (d. 2000)
  • 19 April - Merce Cunningham, American dancer and choreographer
  • 20 April - Richard Hillary, British pilot and author (d. 1943)
  • 22 April - Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)

May-June

  • 1 May - Dan O'Herlihy, Irish film actor (d. 2005)
  • 3 May
    • John Cullen Murphy, American comic strip artist (d. 2004)
    • Pete Seeger, American singer and musician
  • 7 May - Eva Perón, wife of Argentine President Juan Peron (d. 1952)
  • 8 May - Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973)
  • 16 May - Liberace, American pianist (d. 1987)
  • 17 May - Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007)
  • 18 May - Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
  • 20 May - George Gobel, American comedian (d. 1991)
  • 23 May - Betty Garrett, American actress and dancer
  • 4 June - Robert Merrill, American baritone (d. 2004)
  • 5 June - Richard Scarry, American children's author (d. 1994)
  • 19 June - Pauline Kael, American film critic (d. 2001)
  • 21 June - Gérard Pelletier, Canadian journalist, politician, and diplomat (d. 1997)
  • 26 June - Richard Neustadt, American political historian (d. 2003)
  • 30 June - Ed Yost, American inventor (d. 2007)

July-August

  • 6 July - Ernst Haefliger, Swiss tenor (d. 2007)
  • 7 July - Jon Pertwee, British actor (d. 1996)
  • 15 July - Iris Murdoch, Irish novelist (d. 1999)
  • 20 July - Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer (d. 2008)
  • 31 July - Maurice Boitel, French painter (d. 2007)
  • 11 August - Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
  • 13 August - Rex Humbard, American television evangelist (d. 2007)
  • 15 August - Benedict Kiely, Irish author and broadcaster (d. 2007)
  • 21 August - Dalmiro Finol, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1994)
  • 25 August - George Wallace, Governor of Alabama (d. 1998)
  • 28 August - Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
  • 31 August - Amrita Preetam, Indian poetess and author (d. 2005)

September-October

  • 11 September - Ota Sik, Czech economist and politician (d. 2004)
  • 21 September - Fazlur Rahman, Pakistani Islamic scholar (d. 1988)
  • 24 September - Rick Vallin, Russian-American actor (d. 1977)
  • 26 September - Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher
  • 27 September - James H. Wilkinson, English mathematician (d. 1986)
  • 3 October - James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 5 October - Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
  • 7 October - Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia
  • 11 October - Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
  • 12 October - Doris Miller, American sailor (d. 1943)
  • 16 October - Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
  • 17 October - Zhao Ziyang, prime minister of the People's Republic of China (d. 2005)
  • 18 October
    • Anita O'Day, American jazz singer (d. 2006)
    • Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada (d. 2000)
  • 22 October - Doris Lessing, British writer
  • 23 October - Manolis Andronikos, Greek Arceologist (d 1992)
  • 26 October
    • James E. Myers, American songwriter (d. 2001)
    • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1980)

November-December

  • 3 November
    • Jesús Blasco, Spanish comic book author (d. 1995)
    • Spider Jorgensen, American baseball player and coach (d. 2003)
  • 5 November - Myron Floren, American accordionist (d. 2005)
  • 10 November - Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian firearms inventor
  • 14 November - Lisa Otto, German soprano
  • 15 November - Roy Burden, Canadian World War II pilot (d. 2005)
  • 18 November - Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (d. 1944)
  • 28 November - Keith Miller, Australian sportsman (d. 2004)
  • 6 December - Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
  • 8 December - Mieczyslaw Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996)
  • 9 December - William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 21 December - Ove Sprogøe, Danish actor (d. 2004)
  • 31 December - Tommy Byrne, baseball player (d. 2007)

Deaths

January - June

  • 4 January - Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
  • 6 January
  • 7 January - Henry Ware Eliot American industrialist and philanthropist (b. 1843)
  • 15 January
    • Karl Liebknecht, German politician (executed) (b. 1871)
    • Rosa Luxemburg, German politician (executed)
  • 18 January - Prince John of the United Kingdom (b. 1905)
  • 27 January - Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
  • 17 February - Wilfrid Laurier, seventh Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841)
  • 2 March - Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
  • 4 April - William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (b. 1832)
  • 10 April - Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879)
  • 15 April - Jane Delano, American nurse and founder or the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862)
  • 3 May - Eugen Levine, German revolutionary (b. 1883)
  • 4 May - Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
  • 6 May - L. Frank Baum, American writer (b. 1856)
  • 14 May - Henry John Heinz, American businessman (b. 1844)
  • 29 June - José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and saint (b. 1864)
  • 30 June - John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)

July - December

  • 15 July - Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
  • 26 July - Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
  • 9 August - Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (b. 1857)
  • 11 August - Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835)
  • 7 October - Alfred Deakin, second Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
  • 13 October - Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
  • 18 October - Viscount William Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848)
  • 9 November - Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848)
  • 15 November - Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
  • 3 December - Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841)

Nobel prizes

  • Physics - Johannes Stark
  • Chemistry - not awarded
  • Physiology or Medicine - Jules Bordet
  • Literature - Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
  • Peace - Woodrow Wilson

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