DATE: | Wednesday, November 22nd |
TIME: | 4:30 PM - 5:30 PM |
PLACE: | McConnell 320 |
TITLE: | Colouring Graphs with Nearly Delta Colours |
SPEAKER: | Mike Molloy, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Toronto |
We characterize graphs with maximum degree Delta
which are not k-colourable, when Delta is sufficiently large
and k is close to Delta. In particular, we show that
for (Delta+1-k)(Delta+2-k)< Delta,
i.e. for k at least roughly Delta+1-sqrt{Delta},
such graphs must
contain a small non-k-colourable subgraph, i.e. one whose size is
bounded in terms of Delta. For (Delta+1-k)(Delta+2-k)= Delta, this
does not hold,
but non-k-colourable such graphs which do not contain such subgraphs
have a
simple structure. This is far from true when
(Delta+1-k)(Delta+2-k)>Delta
since in this case,
Embden-Weinert, Hougardy and Kreuter proved that
k-colourability is
NP-complete even for Delta=O(1). (It is straightforward
to see that our result implies that for $\Delta=O(1)$ and
(Delta+1-k)(Delta+2-k)\leq Delta,
k-colourability can be solved in polytime. In fact, we
can solve it in linear time.)
Our main result can be seen as a generalization of Brooks' Theorem,
which states that when k=Delta, a graph of maximum degree Delta
is not k-colourable iff it contains a (Delta+1)-clique. Here we show
that for a wider range of k, and Delta sufficiently large, a
non-k-colourable graph does not neccessarily contain a (k+1)-clique,
but it contains something close: a small non-k-colourable subgraph.
Joint work with Bruce Reed..